Shipping Abbreviations & Full Forms

A/B: Able bodied seaman, a member of the crew who is able to perform all duties of an experienced seaman.

A/S: Alongside

AA: Always afloat

AAAA: Always accessible always afloat

AAOSA: Always afloat or safely aground

AARA: Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area

ABT: About

ADCOM: Address Commission

AFSPS: Arrival First Sea Pilot Station (Norway)

AG: Arabian Gulf – also called PG – Persian Gulf

AGW: All going well

AHL: Australian hold ladders

ANTHAM: Antwerp-Hamburg range

APS: Arrival pilot station

AR: Accounts receivable

ARAG: Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp-Gent range

ASPW: Any safe port in the world

ATDNSHINC: Any time day/night Sundays and holidays Included

ATUTC: Actual times used to count

B/C: Bulk carrier. Single deck ship carrying homogenous unpackaged cargoes. Loaded through large hatchways

B/L: Bill of lading. A document signed by the carrier which acts as a Contract of Affreightment, a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.

BAF: Bunker adjustment factor. A fuel surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight amount, reflecting the movement in the market place price for bunkers.

BBB: Before breaking bulk. Refers to freight payments that must be received before discharge of a vessel commences

BDI: Both dates inclusive

BENDS: Both ends (load & discharge ports)

BI: Both inclusive

BIMCO: The Baltic and International Maritime Council

BL: Bale                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BL (or B/L): Bill of Lading

BM: Beam

BN: Booking note

BOB: Bunker on board

Boffer: Best offer

BPM: Bridge procedure manual

BROB: Bunkers remaining on board

BSM: Barber Ship Management

BSS: Basis

BSS 1/1: Basis 1 port to 1 port

BT: Berth terms

BWAD: Brackish water arrival draft

C/P: Charter Party

C/SNEE (or Consignee)
Name of agent, company or person receiving consignment

CAF: Currency adjustment factor

CAR: Corrective action request

CBA: Collective bargaining agreement (Salary scales for different nationalities of seamen) Used by crewing.

CBFT (or CFT): Cubic feet

CBM: Cubic meters

CBT: Clean ballast tanks

CFC: Chlorofluorocarbon compounds. See HCFC

CFR: Cost and freight. Cost and freight means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of

CHENG: Chief engineer

CHOF: Chief officer or chief mate, second in command of the vessel

CHOPT: Charterers option

CHTRS: Charterers

CIF: Cost, insurance and freight. Means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or dam

CIP: Carriage and insurance paid to… Means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all

CKD: Completely knocked down

Clean (CPP): Refined petroleum products with light color (gas, paraffin, gas oil, naphtha)

CM: Contingency manual

CO2: Carbon dioxide – a combustion product from burning all types of fuel. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may increase the temperature at the Earth’s surface – known as the greenhouse effect

COA (Contract of Affreightment) – Owners agree to accept a cost per revenue ton for cargo carried on a specific number of voyages.

COACP: Contract of Affreightment charter party

COB: Closing of business

COBLDN: Closing of business London

COD: Cash on delivery

COGSA: Carriage of goods by Sea act

CONS: Consumption

COP: Custom of port

CP (or C/P): Charter party

CPD: Charterers pay dues

CPT: Carriage paid to… Means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any

CQD: Customary quick dispatch

CR: Current rate

CRN: Crane

CROB: Cargo remaining on board

CRT: Cargo retention clauses, introduced by charterers based on shortage of delivered cargo because of increased oil prices

CST: Centistoke

CTR: Container fitted

CVS: Consecutive voyages

D&A: Drug & Alcohol

D/A: Disbursement account

DAF: Delivered at frontier. Means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export, but not cleared for import at the named point and place at the frontier, but

DAMFORDET: Damages for detention. Penalty if cargo is not ready when ship arrives for working (1st day of Laycan). This is not detention which is charged for ships time on delay. If the cargo is ready there is no DAMFORDET.

DAPS: Days all purposes (Total days for loading & discharging)

DDP: Delivered duty paid. Means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing th

DDU: Delivered duty unpaid. Means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing

DEM: Demurrage (quay rent). Money paid by the shipper for the occupying port space beyond a specified “free time period.

DEQ: Delivered ex quay. Means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not cleared for import on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to

DES: Delivered ex ship. Means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship not cleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goo

DESP: Dispatch. Time saved, reward for quick turnaround, in dry cargo only

DET: Detention (See DAMFORDET)

DEV: Deviation. Vessel departure from specified voyage course

DFRT (Deadfreight): Space booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used

DHDATSBE: Dispatch half demurrage on all time saved both ends

DHDWTSBE: Dispatch half demurrage on working time saved both ends

DISCH: Discharge

DK: Deck

DLOSP: Dropping last outwards sea pilot (Norway)

DNRCAOSLONL: Discountless and non-returnable cargo and/or ship lost or not lost

DO: Diesel Oil

DOC: Document of Compliance – refers to the ISM Code. Means a document issued to a Company which complies with the requirements of the ISM Code.

DOLSP: Dropping off last sea pilot (Norway)

DOP: Dropping outward pilot

DOT: Department of Transport

DP: Designated Person – refers to the ISM code

DRC: Document Review Committee

DRK: Derrick, crane, winch

DWAT: Deadweight all told

DWAT (or DWT): Deadweight. Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement.

DWCC: Deadweight cargo capacity

DWT (Deadweight tonnage): Weight in tons of cargo, stores, fuel, passengers, crew, etc., carried by the ship when loaded to her maximum summer load line.

DPS:Dynamic positioning system; keeping the ship’s position with the help of automatically controlled propellers

EC: East Coast

EIU: Even if used

ELVENT: Electric ventilation

EMM: Environmental management manual

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency

ERT: Emergency response team

ETA: Estimated time of arrival

ETC: Estimated time of completion

ETD: Estimated time of departure

ETS: Estimated time of sailing

EXW: Ex. works. Means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle.

FAC: Fast as can (loading or discharging)

FAS: Free alongside ship. Means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods from that moment.

FCA: Free to carrier. Means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goo

FD (FDIS): Free discharge

FDD: Freight demurrage deadfreight

FDEDANRSAOCLONL: Freight deemed earned, discountless and non-returnable (refundable) ship and or cargo lost or not lost

FDESP: Free dispatch

FEU: Standard 40’ Container

FHEX: Fridays and holidays excepted

FHINC: Fridays and holidays included

FI: Freight interest insurance

FILO: Free in/liner out. Seafreight with which the shipper pays load costs and the carrier pays for discharge costs.

FIO: Free in/out. Freight booked FIO includes the seafreight, but no loading/discharging costs, i.e. the charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo.

FIOS: Free in/out stowed. As per FIO, but excludes stowage costs.

FIOST: Free in/out and trimmed. Charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo, including stowage and trimming.

FIOT: Free in/out and trimmed. As per FIOS but includes trimming, e.g. the leveling of bulk cargoes. FIOS includes sea freight, but excludes loading/discharging and stowage costs.

FIT: Free in trimmed

FIW: Free in wagon

FLT: Full liner terms

FMC: Federal Maritime Commission

FME: Force Majeure excepted

FMS: Fathoms

FO1: For orders

FO2 (IFO): Fuel oil/intermediate FO

FO3: Free out

FOB: Free on board. Means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller

FOB: Free on board. Seller sees the goods “over the ship’s rail” on to the ship which is arranged and paid for by the buyer

FOC: Flag of convenience

FOFFER: Firm offer

FOG: For our guidance

FOQ: Free on quay

FOR: Free on rail

FOT: Free on truck

FOW: First open water

FOW: Free on wharf

FP (Free pratique): Clearance by the Health Authorities

FPSO: Floating production, storage and offloading vessel

FR: First refusal; first attempt at best offer that can be matched

Free dispatch: If loading/discharging achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no freight money returned.

Free EXINS: Free of any extra Insurance (Owners)

FRT: Freight. Money payable on delivery of cargo in a mercantile condition

FWAD: Fresh water arrival draft

FWDD: Fresh water departure draft

FYG: For your guidance

FYI: For your information

g/t-km: Denotes emissions in grams per tone of cargo shipped over a kilometer

GA plan: General arrangement plan

GEOROT: Geographical rotation

GL: General ledger

GLS (GLESS): Gearless

GM: General manager; head of local entity

GN (or GR): Grain (Capacity)

GNCN or Gencon: General conditions

GO: Gas oil

GP: Grain capacity. Cubic capacity in ‘grain’

GR: Geographical rotation. Ports in order of calling

GRD: Geared

GRT: Gross registered tonnage

GSB: Good, safe berth

GSP: Good, safe port

GTEE: Guarantee

H&M: Hull and machinery insurance

HA: Hatch

HBF: Harmless bulk fertilizer

HCFC: Hydro-chlorofluorocarbon compounds, such as freon 22 (R22)

HDLTSBENDS: Half dispatch lay time saved both ends

HDWTS: Half dispatch working (or weather) time saved

HFC: Hydrofluorocarbon

HFO: Heavy fuel oil. Used in ship’s engines and boiler systems

HHDW: Handy heavy d.w. (scrap)

HI: Hull interest insurance

HMS: Heavy metal scraps

HO: Hold; a compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo

HW: High water

IAS: International Accounting Standards. (Former name for IFRS.)

ICT: Information communication technology

ICW: Intercoastal waterway: bays, rivers, and canals along the coasts (such as the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts), connected so that vessels may travel without going into the sea

IFRS: International Financial Reporting Standards

ILO: International Labour Organization

IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods code

IMO (International Maritime Organisation): Body created to regulate international maritime trade

IND: Indication

INMARSAT: International Maritime Satellite System

INTERMODAL: Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey

ISM Code: International Safety Management Code. The objectives of the ISM Code are to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the environment, in particular to the marine environment and to property. The purpose

ISMA: International Ship Managers Association

ISO 14000: ISO standard for environmental management

ISO 14001: International environmental standard

ISO 9001: International quality standard

ISPS: International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. The Objective with the ISPS code is to establish an international framework involving co-operations between contracting governments, government agencies, local administration and the shipping and port infrastructure

ITF: International Transport Federation

IU: If used

IUHTAUTC: If used, half time actually used to count

IWL: Institute Warranty Limits

L/C: Letter of credit

LAT (Latitude): The distance north or south of the equator measured and expressed in degrees.

LCR: Lowest current rate

LF: Load factor. Percentage of cargo or passengers carries e.g. 4 000 tons carried on a vessel of 10 000 capacity has a load factor of 40%

LOA: Length overall (of ships hull)

LOF: Lloyds Open Form

LOH: Loss of hire insurance

LOI: Letter of indemnity

LOLO: Lift on – lift off

LOW: Last open water

LPG: Liquefied petroleum gas – from refineries (mostly propane, butane)

LS (or LUMPS): Lump sum freight. Money paid to shipper for a charter of a ship (or portion) up to stated limit irrespective of quantity of cargo

LSD: Lashed secured dunnaged

LSFO: Low sulphur fuel oil (bunkers)

LT: Liner terms

LT: Long ton = 1 016.05 kilogram (2 240 lbs)

LTHH: Liner terms hook/hook

LW: Low water

LYCN: Laycan (Layday cancelling date)

M/V: Motor vessel / merchant vessel

Mark I: WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1978-79

Mark II: WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1984

Mark III: WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 1996

Mark IV: WW designation for ro-ro carriers built in 2000-01

MB: Merchant broker

MDO (DO): Marine diesel oil

MDO / MGO: Marine diesel oil/marine gas oil

MED: Mediterranean Sea

MHI: Car carriers built at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 2004-06

MIAP: Mortgagee interest additional perils pollution

MII: Mortgagee interest insurance

MIN/MAX: Minimum/Maximum (cargo quantity)

MM: Marketing manual

MOA: Memorandum of agreement

MOLCHOPT: More or less charterers option

MOLOO: More or less owners option. (A margin for shipowner for how much the ship should carry: A moloo of 5% on a 30 000 ton ship gives a cargo between 28,500 and 31,500 tons

MSM: Minimum safe manning (flag states minimum approved manning for a vessel)

MT: Metric ton (1,000 kilos)

NAABSA: Not always afloat but safely aground

NCB: National Cargo Bureau

NIS: Norwegian International Ship Register

NOx: Nitrogen oxides; Environmentally harmful gases formed by the engine’s combustion process

NM: Nautical mile. One minute of latitude; approximately 6 076 feet – about 1/8 longer than the statute mile of 5 280 feet

NMD: Norwegian Maritime Directorate

NOR: Notice of readiness

NRT: Net register tonnage

NYPE: New York Produce Exchange

OBO: Ore/bulk/oil vessel

OCIMF: The Oil Companies International Marine Forum: OCIMF is a voluntary association of oil companies having an interest in the shipment and terminalling of crude oil and oil products.

OO: Owners option

OPA 90: The Oil Pollution Act of 1990, a US law imposing far-reaching requirements on shipowners, vessels and crews when carrying petroleum products to the US and within the US Economic Zone (200 miles off the coastline). Introduced after the Exxon Valdez accident

OSH: Open shelter deck

OWS: Owners

OWS: Oily water separator

P&I: Protection and indemnity (Responsibility insurance for the shipowner).


PC: Period of charter

PCC: Pure car carrier (vessel type)

PCGO: Part cargo

PCT: Percent

PCTC: Pure car and truck carrier (vessel type)

PDA: Pro forma disbursement account

PDPR: Per day or pro rata (for part of a day)

PG: Persian Gulf

PHPD: Per hatch per day

PMS: Port marine services

Pooling: Cargo or profit sharing by cooperating companies in lines or liner conferences

ppm: parts per million (1 ppm = 0,000001 or 1 mg/kg)

PS&L: Port service & logistics which includes the product lines PMS, Liner, Logistics and HUB

PUS: Plus us

PWWD: Per weather working day

QA: Quality assurance

RCVR: Receiver

RECAP: Recapitulation of the terms and conditions agreed

ROB: Remaining on board

RT: Revenue Ton (i.e. 1.0 metric ton or 1.0 cubic meter, whichever greater). The overall RT is calculated on a line by line basis of the Packing List using the largest amount.

RT43: Measure for capacity by a car which is 4.125 m long, 1.550 m wide and 1.420 m high

SAR: Search and Rescue

SATPM: Saturday P.M.

SB: Safe berth

SBT: Segregated ballast tanks

SD (or SID): Single decker

SELFD: Self discharging

SF: Stowage factor. Cubic space (measurement ton) occupied by one ton (2,240 lbs/1,000 kgs) of cargo

SHEX: Sundays and holidays excluded

SHINC: Sundays and holidays included

SMC: Safety management certificate – ref. ISM Code

SN: Satellite navigation. A form of position finding using radio transmissions from satellites with sophisticated on-board automatic equipment

SOC: Shipper owned container

SOF: Statement of facts

SOPEP: Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan

SP: Safe port

SQC: Special Qualification Certificate (issued by flag state)

SQM: Safety quality manager

SRBL: Signing and releasing Bill of lading

SSHEX: Saturdays, Sundays, holidays excluded

SSHINC (or SATSHINC): Saturdays, Sundays, holidays included

SSMM: Ship Safety Management Manual

STCW: Standards of Training, Certificates and Watchkeeping. Standard that crewing have to comply with. For more information please look at (Human Element – Training and Certification).

SUB (Subject to): depending upon as a condition

SOx: Sulphur oxides;Sulphur in the bunkers oil combines with oxygen in the combustion process to form sulphur oxides. These react with moisture in the air to produce sulphurous and sulphuric acid

SWAD: Salt water arrival draft

SWDD: Salt water departure draft

Swedac: Swedish Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assessment

T/C: Time charter (shipper controls the ship and pays a monthly rent, T/C-hire)

TBN: To be named/nominated

TBT: Tributyltin, used in tin-based antifouling

TC: Time charter. Owners agree to hire a particular ship for a set length of time and provide technical management, crewing etc.

TCP: Time charter party

TEU: Standard 20’ Container

TMSA: Tanker Management and Self Assessment. The OCIMF’s Tanker Management and Self-Assessment program is a tool to help ship operators measure and improve their management systems. The program encourages ship operators to assess their safety-management sys

TTL: Total

TW: Tween decker

UER: Undesired event report

ULCC: Ultra Large Crude Carrier – oil tanker of 300,000 + dwt

Unicool: Barwil Unitor’s maritime refrigerants

USC: Unless sooner commenced


UU: Unless used

UUIWCTAUTC: Unless used in which case time actually used to count

VCM: vessel contingency manual

VLCC: Very Large Crude Carrier

VPD: Vessel pays dues

VRPP: Vessel response plan pollution

W or WS: Worldscale (Rating system for tanking. Basis rates for different voyages)

WCCON: Whether customs cleared or not

WIBON: Whether in berth or not

WIFPON: Whether in free pratique or not

WIPON: Whether in port or not

WLS: Wilhelmsen Lines Shipowning

WLTOHC: Water line-to-hatch coaming

WMC: Wilhelmsen Marine Consultants

WMS: Wilhelmsen Maritime Services

WOG: Without guarantee

WP: Weather permitting. That time during which weather prevents working shall not count as laytime

WPD: Weather permitting day

WRIC: Wire rods in coils

WWD: Weather working day

WWD: Weather working day (days when loading/ discharging is not interrupted by the weather)

WWR: When, where ready


YAR: York Antwerp Rules

YAW: To swing or steer off course, as when running with a quartering sea

YB: Yellow Book – onboard the ships on management

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